242 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP .. .....I the throne must provoke inevitable jealousies, but a veri- table descendant of Ali, whose birth would unite the tribesmen in his service. The co-operation of seven Turkish tribes in his support furnished proof that a new epoch had opened. The Kizilbash, or " Red heads " *—a name by which the Ustajlu, Shamlu, Takalu, Baharlu, Zulkadar, Kajar, and Afshar tribes were honoured—all being sworn upholders of the Shia religion, regarded their sovereign as both saint and king, no incompatible functions in the East. After annihilating the rival " White Sheep " dynasty, Shah Ismail annexed Baghdad and Mosul. Later on he obtained possession of Diarbekir, and so successful was he that in a few years he had conquered the wide-spreading empire of the Ak-Kuyunlu. His activity was exceptional, and we read of his being engaged in a single season in operations ranging from Baku in the north to Shuster in the south. The Defeat of the Uzbeks by Shah Ismail, A.H. 916 (1510).—After securing his power in North-Western and Western Persia, Shah Ismail marched into Khorasan, which, as mentioned in Chapter LX., had fallen into the hands of the Uzbegs. He sent an envoy to Shaybani Khan requesting him to desist from his invasions, but the contemptuous reply was,cc If Shah Ismail has suffered any diminution of his paternal possessions, it is easy to restore them to him in their entirety." To add point to the message, a staff and begging bowl were sent to the Shah. A spindle and reel were the return gifts, signifying that words were a woman's weapons, Shaybani Khan's army had fought a battle in A.H. 915 (1510) against the Kazaks of the Dasht-i-Kipchak, and the Uzbeg monarch had engraved a record of what he claimed as a victory2 in a defile to the north of Meshed, which I have visited, and which at any rate proves that much of Khorasan had fallen under the Uzbegs. Shah Ismail advanced against the enemy with great 1 These tribesmen wore a scarlet head-piece. 2 Khondemir and other historians state that the Uzbegs were defeated in this campaign.